Abbreviations and Glossary

Abu Mazen see Mahmoud Abbas

Al Jazeera: Arabic TV station

Camp David Accords: Sadat (Egypt), Begin (Israel) and Jimmy Carter met at Camp David September 5 -17, 1978, and agreed a peace plan based on UN Security Council Resolution 242 with Egypt, Israel and Jordan participating in resolving the Palestinian problem to ensure autonomy for the West Bank and Gaza within five years, also agreed peace and normal relations between Israel and Egypt and agreed to use the same principles to achieve peace treaties between Israel and Jordan and Syria.

Da’wah: spreading Islam through preaching, propaganda, and religious-political indoctrination.

Fatah: main PLO faction preside over by Mahmoud Abbas

Fauda: anarchy on the streets.

Hamas: Islamic Resistance Movement

Hezbollah: Islamic Resistance Movement based in Lebanon, backed by Syria.

Hudna: Islamic term meaning a tactical cease-fire allowing the Arabs to rebuild their forces for a more opportune time.

IAF: Israel Air Force

IDF: Israel Defence Force (Army)

Intifada: Uprising of the Palestinians

Islamic Jihad: Radical Islamic Resistance Movement

Jihad: Islamic holy war

Knesset: Israeli Parliament

Madrid Conference (Oct 1991): hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR who invited Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and the Palestinians to negotiate towards peace treaties and a two stage plan for Palestinian self-government. These were the first-ever public bilateral talks between Israel and its neighbors (except Egypt). It led to the Israel-Jordan peace treaty (1994).

Mahmoud Abbas: President of the PA

Mitchell Plan: The Mitchell Plan; April 30, 2001 following the Sharm el-Sheikh meetings in 1999 & 2000, called for an end to violence, co-operation over security, the PA to stop terrorism, Israel to freeze settlement activity, lift closures, transfer Palestinian taxes to the PA, and cease destroying Palestinian property.

Mossad: Israeli Secret Service

Oslo Accords, (“Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements”) finalized in Oslo, Aug 20, 1993, and publicly signed by Arafat (PLO), Rabin (Israel), Russia and the US at the White House Sep 13, 1993 in the presence of Bill Clinton following secret negotiations (esp. the Madrid Conference). It agreed to Palestinian self-government after a 5-year interim with the Palestinian areas divided into Area A – full control of the Palestinian Authority, Area B – Palestinian civil control, Israeli security control and Area C – full Israeli control, except over Palestinian civilians (Israeli settlements and security zones). Israel recognised the PLO as the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and the PLO recognized the right of the state of Israel to exist and renounced terrorism, violence and its desire for the destruction of Israel. Economic co-operation was agreed. Oslo 2 (Sep 28, 1995) gave the Palestinians self-rule in Bethlehem, Hebron, Jenin, Qalqilya, Ramallah, Tulkarm and some 450 villages.

PA: Palestinian Authority

PLC: Palestinian Legislative Council/Parliament

PLO: Palestinian Liberation Organisation

Quartet: US, Europe, Russia and UN who called for a two state solution, a freeze on Israeli settlements, PA action to stop terrorism, Israel to avoid civilian casualties, ease the humanitarian and economic plight of the Palestinian people and cease deportations; confiscation and/or demolition of Palestinian homes and property, destruction of Palestinian institutions and infrastructure.

Resolution 242: U.N. Security Council Resolution 242 November 22, 1967 which called for withdrawal of Israel from territories occupied in 1967 and recognition of Israel’s right to exist within secure borders.

Resolution 338: U.N. Security Council Resolution 338 October 22, 1973 which called for a cease-fire in the Yom Kippur War and the implementation of Resolution 242.

Resolution 1397: U.N. Security Council Resolution 1397 March 12, 2002 called for a two state solution, welcomed Saudi initiative and called for cessation of violence and implementation of Tenet plan and Mitchell report.

Resolution 1515: U.N. Security Council Resolution 1515 November 19 2003 called for implementation of the Road Map.

Road Map: a 3-phase peace process drafted April 30, 2003 to achieve a full settlement by 2005. Phase 1 (Spring 2003): Ending violence, normalising Palestinian life and building Palestinian institutions, affirming Israel’s right to exist and aiming at a two-state solution. Phase 2 (June-Dec 2003): an international conference to be held after Palestinian elections to support Palestinian economic recovery. Phase 3 (2004-5): second international conference on Palestinian state with provisional borders leading to a final, permanent status resolution in 2005, including on borders, Jerusalem, refugees, settlements; and, a comprehensive Middle East settlement between Israel and Lebanon and Israel and Syria, to be achieved as soon as possible. The resolution on Jerusalem would protect the interests of Jews, Christians and Muslims.

Saudi Arabian Peace Initiative: (2002-3) requires Israel to withdraw from all territories seized in 1967 (West Bank, Gaza, East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights) in return for all Arab states recognising Israel’s right to exist with secure borders. It seems to allow Israel to have sovereignty over the Wailing Wall, to transfer some Israeli land in exchange for West Bank land. It does not mention the right of return to Israel of Palestinian refugees.

Shin Bet: Israel Security Agency

Tahdiah: calming of the situation, e.g. curbing violence.

Tenet Plan: Proposed by CIA Director George Tenet; June 13, 2001 called for a cease-fire, Israeli-Palestinian co-operation over security, arrest of terrorists by the PA, release of non-terrorism prisoners, end of closures and minimizing of checkpoints by Israel.Wye River Memorandum (Oct 23, 1998): an agreement between Netenyahu (Israel), Arafat (PLO) and Bill Clinton to implement the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza (Sep 23, 1995), calling for setting up of Area A – under full control of the Palestinian Authority, Area B – under Palestinian civil control and Israeli military control and Area C – under full Israeli control, stopping terrorism, co-operating over security, promote Palestinian economic development. It was agreed by the Knesset but failed because of the 2000 Al Aksa Intifada.